Grade Two Reading 1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.

Decoding and Word Recognition 1.1 Recognize and use knowledge of spelling patterns (e.g., diphthongs, special vowel spellings) when reading.

1.2 Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules when reading (e.g., vowel-consonant-vowel [ = su/ per]; vowel-consonant/consonant-vowel [= sup/ per].

1.3 Decode two-syllable nonsense words and regular multisyllable words.

1.4 Recognize common abbreviations [e.g., Jan., Sun., Mr., St.].

1.5 Identify and correctly use regular plurals [e.g., -s, -es, -ies] and irregular plurals [e.g., fly/ flies, wife/ wives].

1.6 Read aloud fluently and accurately and with appropriate intonation and expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development 1.7 Understand and explain common antonyms and synonyms.

1.8 Use knowledge of individual words in unknown compound words to predict their meaning.

1.9 Know the meaning of simple prefixes and suffixes [e.g., over-, un-, -ing, -ly].

1.10 Identify simple multiple-meaning words.

2.0 Reading Comprehension Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources). The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, by grade four, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade two, students continue to make progress toward this goal.

Structural Features of Informational Materials 2.1 Use titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information in expository text.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text 2.2 State the purpose in reading (i. e., tell what information is sought).

2.3 Use knowledge of the author's purpose( s) to comprehend informational text.

2.4 Ask clarifying questions about essential textual elements of exposition [e.g., why, what if, how].

2.5 Restate facts and details in the text to clarify and organize ideas.

2.6 Recognize cause-and-effect relationships in a text.

2.7 Interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs.

2.8 Follow two-step written instructions.

3.0. Literary Response and Analysis Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children's literature. They distinguish between the structural features of the text and the literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

3.1 Compare and contrast plots, settings, and characters presented by different authors.

3.2 Generate alternative endings to plots and identify the reason or reasons for, and the impact of, the alternatives.

3.3 Compare and contrast different versions of the same stories that reflect different cultures.

3.4 Identify the use of rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration in poetry.

Writing 1.0 Writing Strategies Students write clear and coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea. Their writing shows they consider the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing successive versions). Organization and Focus

1.1 Group related ideas and maintain a consistent focus. Penmanship

1.2 Create readable documents with legible handwriting. Research

1.3 Understand the purposes of various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, atlas). Evaluation and Revision

1.4 Revise original drafts to improve sequence and provide more descriptive detail.

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0. Using the writing strategies of grade two outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Write brief narratives based on their experiences:

a. Move through a logical sequence of events.

b. Describe the setting, characters, objects, and events in detail.

2.2 Write a friendly letter complete with the date, salutation, body, closing, and signature.

Written and Oral English Language Conventions The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.

1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.

Sentence Structure 1.1 Distinguish between complete and incomplete sentences.

1.2 Recognize and use the correct word order in written sentences.

Grammar 1.3 Identify and correctly use various parts of speech, including nouns and verbs, in writing and speaking.

Punctuation 1.4 Use commas in the greeting and closure of a letter and with dates and items in a series.

1.5 Use quotation marks correctly.

Capitalization 1.6 Capitalize all proper nouns, words at the beginning of sentences and greetings, months and days of the week, and titles and initials of people.

Spelling 1.7 Spell frequently used, irregular words correctly (e.g., was, were, says, said, who, what, why). 1.8 Spell basic short-vowel, long-vowel, r- controlled, and consonant-blend patterns correctly.

Listening and Speaking

1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies Students listen critically and respond appropriately to oral communication. They speak in a manner that guides the listener to understand important ideas by using proper phrasing, pitch, and modulation.

Comprehension 1.1 Determine the purpose or purposes of listening (e.g., to obtain information, to solve problems, for enjoyment).

1.2 Ask for clarification and explanation of stories and ideas.

1.3 Paraphrase information that has been shared orally by others.

1.4 Give and follow three-and four-step oral directions. Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication

1.5 Organize presentations to maintain a clear focus.

1.6 Speak clearly and at an appropriate pace for the type of communication (e.g., informal discussion, report to class).

1.7 Recount experiences in a logical sequence.

1.8 Retell stories, including characters, setting, and plot.

1.9 Report on a topic with supportive facts and details.

2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0. Using the speaking strategies of grade two outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Recount experiences or present stories:

a. Move through a logical sequence of events.

b. Describe story elements (e.g., characters, plot, setting).

2.2 Report on a topic with facts and details, drawing from several sources of information.

Grade Two

Mathematics Content Standards By the end of grade two, students understand place value and number relationships in addition and subtraction, and they use simple concepts of multiplication. They measure quantities with appropriate units. They classify shapes and see relationships among them by paying attention to their geometric attributes. They collect and analyze data and verify the answers.

Number Sense 1.0 Students understand the relationship between numbers, quantities, and place value in whole numbers up to 1,000:

1.1 Count, read, and write whole numbers to 1,000 and identify the place value for each digit.

1.2 Use words, models, and expanded forms (e.g., 45 = 4 tens + 5) to represent numbers (to 1,000).

1.3 Order and compare whole numbers to 1,000 by using the symbols <, =, >.

2.0 Students estimate, calculate, and solve problems involving addition and subtraction of two-and three-digit numbers:

2.1 Understand and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., an opposite number sentence for 8 + 6 = 14 is 14 - 6 = 8) to solve problems and check solutions.

2.2 Find the sum or difference of two whole numbers up to three digits long.

2.3 Use mental arithmetic to find the sum or difference of two two-digit numbers.

3.0 Students model and solve simple problems involving multiplication and division:

3.1 Use repeated addition, arrays, and counting by multiples to do multiplication.

3.2 Use repeated subtraction, equal sharing, and forming equal groups with remainders to do division.

3.3 Know the multiplication tables of 2s, 5s, and 10s (to "times 10") and commit them to memory.

4.0 Students understand that fractions and decimals may refer to parts of a set and parts of a whole:

4.1 Recognize, name, and compare unit fractions from 1/12 to 1/2.

4.2 Recognize fractions of a whole and parts of a group (e.g., one-fourth of a pie, two-thirds of 15 balls).

4.3 Know that when all fractional parts are included, such as four-fourths, the result is equal to the whole and to one.

5.0 Students model and solve problems by representing, adding, and subtracting amounts of money:

5.1 Solve problems using combinations of coins and bills.

5.2 Know and use the decimal notation and the dollar and cent symbols for money.

6.0 Students use estimation strategies in computation and problem solving that involve numbers that use the ones, tens, hundreds, and thousands places:

6.1 Recognize when an estimate is reasonable in measurements (e.g., closest inch).

Algebra and Functions

1.0 Students model, represent, and interpret number relationships to create and solve problems involving addition and subtraction:

1.1 Use the commutative and associative rules to simplify mental calculations and to check results.

1.2 Relate problem situations to number sentences involving addition and subtraction.

1.3 Solve addition and subtraction problems by using data from simple charts, picture graphs, and number sentences.

Measurement and Geometry

1.0 Students understand that measurement is accomplished by identifying a unit of measure, iterating (repeating) that unit, and comparing it to the item to be measured:

1.1 Measure the length of objects by iterating (repeating) a nonstandard or standard unit.

1.2 Use different units to measure the same object and predict whether the measure will be greater or smaller when a different unit is used.

1.3 Measure the length of an object to the nearest inch and/ or centimeter.

1.4 Tell time to the nearest quarter hour and know relationships of time (e.g., minutes in an hour, days in a month, weeks in a year).

1.5 Determine the duration of intervals of time in hours (e.g., 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.).

2.0 Students identify and describe the attributes of common figures in the plane and of common objects in space:

2.1 Describe and classify plane and solid geometric shapes (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, sphere, pyramid, cube, rectangular prism) according to the number and shape of faces, edges, and vertices.

2.2 Put shapes together and take them apart to form other shapes (e.g., two congruent right triangles can be arranged to form a rectangle).

Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability

1.0 Students collect numerical data and record, organize, display, and interpret the data on bar graphs and other representations:

1.1 Record numerical data in systematic ways, keeping track of what has been counted.

1.2 Represent the same data set in more than one way (e.g., bar graphs and charts with tallies).

1.3 Identify features of data sets (range and mode).

1.4 Ask and answer simple questions related to data representations.

2.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of patterns and how patterns grow and describe them in general ways:

2.1 Recognize, describe, and extend patterns and determine a next term in linear patterns (e.g., 4, 8, 12 ...; the number of ears on one horse, two horses, three horses, four horses).

2.2 Solve problems involving simple number patterns.

Mathematical Reasoning

1.0 Students make decisions about how to set up a problem:

1.1 Determine the approach, materials, and strategies to be used.

1.2 Use tools, such as manipulatives or sketches, to model problems.

2.0 Students solve problems and justify their reasoning:

2.1 Defend the reasoning used and justify the procedures selected.

2.2 Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results in the context of the problem.

3.0 Students note connections between one problem and another.

Grade TwoReading1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary DevelopmentStudents understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.

Decoding and Word Recognition1.1 Recognize and use knowledge of spelling patterns (e.g., diphthongs, special vowel spellings) when reading.

1.2 Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules when reading (e.g., vowel-consonant-vowel [ =

su/per]; vowel-consonant/consonant-vowel [=sup/ per].1.3 Decode two-syllable nonsense words and regular multisyllable words.

1.4 Recognize common abbreviations [e.g.,

Jan., Sun., Mr., St.].1.5 Identify and correctly use regular plurals [e.g.,

-s, -es, -ies] and irregular plurals [e.g.,fly/ flies, wife/ wives].1.6 Read aloud fluently and accurately and with appropriate intonation and expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development1.7 Understand and explain common antonyms and synonyms.

1.8 Use knowledge of individual words in unknown compound words to predict their meaning.

1.9 Know the meaning of simple prefixes and suffixes [e.g.,

over-, un-, -ing, -ly].1.10 Identify simple multiple-meaning words.

2.0 Reading ComprehensionStudents read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources). The selections in

Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelveillustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, by grade four, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade two, students continue to make progress toward this goal.Structural Features of Informational Materials2.1 Use titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information in expository text.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text2.2 State the purpose in reading (i. e., tell what information is sought).

2.3 Use knowledge of the author's purpose( s) to comprehend informational text.

2.4 Ask clarifying questions about essential textual elements of exposition [e.g.,

why, what if, how].2.5 Restate facts and details in the text to clarify and organize ideas.

2.6 Recognize cause-and-effect relationships in a text.

2.7 Interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs.

2.8 Follow two-step written instructions.

3.0. Literary Response and AnalysisStudents read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children's literature. They distinguish between the structural features of the text and the literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in

Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelveillustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text3.1 Compare and contrast plots, settings, and characters presented by different authors.

3.2 Generate alternative endings to plots and identify the reason or reasons for, and the impact of, the alternatives.

3.3 Compare and contrast different versions of the same stories that reflect different cultures.

3.4 Identify the use of rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration in poetry.

Writing1.0 Writing StrategiesStudents write clear and coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea. Their writing shows they consider the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing successive versions).

Organization and Focus1.1 Group related ideas and maintain a consistent focus.

Penmanship1.2 Create readable documents with legible handwriting.

Research1.3 Understand the purposes of various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, atlas).

Evaluation and Revision1.4 Revise original drafts to improve sequence and provide more descriptive detail.

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

Using the writing strategies of grade two outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Write brief narratives based on their experiences:

- a. Move through a logical sequence of events.
- b. Describe the setting, characters, objects, and events in detail.

2.2 Write a friendly letter complete with the date, salutation, body, closing, and signature.Written and Oral English Language ConventionsThe standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.

1.0 Written and Oral English Language ConventionsStudents write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.

Sentence Structure1.1 Distinguish between complete and incomplete sentences.

1.2 Recognize and use the correct word order in written sentences.

Grammar1.3 Identify and correctly use various parts of speech, including nouns and verbs, in writing and speaking.

Punctuation1.4 Use commas in the greeting and closure of a letter and with dates and items in a series.

1.5 Use quotation marks correctly.

Capitalization1.6 Capitalize all proper nouns, words at the beginning of sentences and greetings, months and days of the week, and titles and initials of people.

Spelling1.7 Spell frequently used, irregular words correctly (e.g.,

was, were, says, said, who, what, why).1.8 Spell basic short-vowel, long-vowel,

r-controlled, and consonant-blend patterns correctly.Listening and Speaking1.0 Listening and Speaking StrategiesStudents listen critically and respond appropriately to oral communication. They speak in a manner that guides the listener to understand important ideas by using proper phrasing, pitch, and modulation.

Comprehension1.1 Determine the purpose or purposes of listening (e.g., to obtain information, to solve problems, for enjoyment).

1.2 Ask for clarification and explanation of stories and ideas.

1.3 Paraphrase information that has been shared orally by others.

1.4 Give and follow three-and four-step oral directions.

Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication1.5 Organize presentations to maintain a clear focus.

1.6 Speak clearly and at an appropriate pace for the type of communication (e.g., informal discussion, report to class).

1.7 Recount experiences in a logical sequence.

1.8 Retell stories, including characters, setting, and plot.

1.9 Report on a topic with supportive facts and details.

2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.

Using the speaking strategies of grade two outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Recount experiences or present stories:

- a. Move through a logical sequence of events.
- b. Describe story elements (e.g., characters, plot, setting).

2.2 Report on a topic with facts and details, drawing from several sources of information.Grade TwoMathematics Content StandardsBy the end of grade two, students understand place value and number relationships in addition and subtraction, and they use simple concepts of multiplication. They measure quantities with appropriate units. They classify shapes and see relationships among them by paying attention to their geometric attributes. They collect and analyze data and verify the answers.

Number Sense1.0 Students understand the relationship between numbers, quantities, and place value in whole numbers up to 1,000:1.1 Count, read, and write whole numbers to 1,000 and identify the place value for each digit.

1.2 Use words, models, and expanded forms (e.g., 45 = 4 tens + 5) to represent numbers (to 1,000).

1.3 Order and compare whole numbers to 1,000 by using the symbols <, =, >.

2.0 Students estimate, calculate, and solve problems involving addition and subtraction of two-and three-digit numbers:2.1 Understand and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., an opposite number sentence for 8 + 6 = 14 is 14 - 6 = 8) to solve problems and check solutions.

2.2 Find the sum or difference of two whole numbers up to three digits long.

2.3 Use mental arithmetic to find the sum or difference of two two-digit numbers.

3.0 Students model and solve simple problems involving multiplication and division:3.1 Use repeated addition, arrays, and counting by multiples to do multiplication.

3.2 Use repeated subtraction, equal sharing, and forming equal groups with remainders to do division.

3.3 Know the multiplication tables of 2s, 5s, and 10s (to "times 10") and commit them to memory.

4.0 Students understand that fractions and decimals may refer to parts of a set and parts of a whole:4.1 Recognize, name, and compare unit fractions from 1/12 to 1/2.

4.2 Recognize fractions of a whole and parts of a group (e.g., one-fourth of a pie, two-thirds of 15 balls).

4.3 Know that when all fractional parts are included, such as four-fourths, the result is equal to the whole and to one.

5.0 Students model and solve problems by representing, adding, and subtracting amounts of money:5.1 Solve problems using combinations of coins and bills.

5.2 Know and use the decimal notation and the dollar and cent symbols for money.

6.0 Students use estimation strategies in computation and problem solving that involve numbers that use the ones, tens, hundreds, and thousands places:6.1 Recognize when an estimate is reasonable in measurements (e.g., closest inch).

Algebra and Functions1.0 Students model, represent, and interpret number relationships to create and solve problems involving addition and subtraction:1.1 Use the commutative and associative rules to simplify mental calculations and to check results.

1.2 Relate problem situations to number sentences involving addition and subtraction.

1.3 Solve addition and subtraction problems by using data from simple charts, picture graphs, and number sentences.

Measurement and Geometry1.0 Students understand that measurement is accomplished by identifying a unit of measure, iterating (repeating) that unit, and comparing it to the item to be measured:1.1 Measure the length of objects by iterating (repeating) a nonstandard or standard unit.

1.2 Use different units to measure the same object and predict whether the measure will be greater or smaller when a different unit is used.

1.3 Measure the length of an object to the nearest inch and/ or centimeter.

1.4 Tell time to the nearest quarter hour and know relationships of time (e.g., minutes in an hour, days in a month, weeks in a year).

1.5 Determine the duration of intervals of time in hours (e.g., 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.).

2.0 Students identify and describe the attributes of common figures in the plane and of common objects in space:2.1 Describe and classify plane and solid geometric shapes (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, sphere, pyramid, cube, rectangular prism) according to the number and shape of faces, edges, and vertices.

2.2 Put shapes together and take them apart to form other shapes (e.g., two congruent right triangles can be arranged to form a rectangle).

Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability1.0 Students collect numerical data and record, organize, display, and interpret the data on bar graphs and other representations:1.1 Record numerical data in systematic ways, keeping track of what has been counted.

1.2 Represent the same data set in more than one way (e.g., bar graphs and charts with tallies).

1.3 Identify features of data sets (range and mode).

1.4 Ask and answer simple questions related to data representations.

2.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of patterns and how patterns grow and describe them in general ways:2.1 Recognize, describe, and extend patterns and determine a next term in linear patterns (e.g., 4, 8, 12 ...; the number of ears on one horse, two horses, three horses, four horses).

2.2 Solve problems involving simple number patterns.

Mathematical Reasoning1.0 Students make decisions about how to set up a problem:1.1 Determine the approach, materials, and strategies to be used.

1.2 Use tools, such as manipulatives or sketches, to model problems.

2.0 Students solve problems and justify their reasoning:2.1 Defend the reasoning used and justify the procedures selected.

2.2 Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results in the context of the problem.

3.0 Students note connections between one problem and another.